Consider, for example, Wood. This is probably the oldest EnergySource and was used sustainably for years, both directly and during the early IndustrialRevolution when it was converted to Charcoal.
For most of this time, Wood was harvested from Forest which was allowed to grow back, or which was actively managed usually as a coppiced woodland. In the UK, for example, there was a large decrease in the percentage of land used for woodland, but this was not due to overuse; it was chopped down to make for something else.
Alternatively, of course, you could clear cut a large Forest, burn the lot, transforming it into Energy. This would not be Renewable, per se; eventually the Forest would grow back if it was left alone, but the intention was not to do this, when it was cut down.